Invasive mould disease in fatal COVID-19: a systematic review of autopsies


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22
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Pathological findings of postmortem biopsies from lung, heart, and liver of 7 deceased COVID-19 patients.

Iran Hospitalised 7 (0)

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7 (0) 67·9 (72·0) Minimally invasive No Borczuk et al (2020)
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Italy, USA Hospitalised 68 (2)

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27 (1) (73) Standard; 2 minimally invasive At 1 of 3 centres involved (23 patients) Böesmüeller et al (2020)
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3 (0) 71·8 (75·0) Standard Yes Bradley et al (2020)
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USA Hospitalised 14 (0)

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8 (0) 70·6 (73·5) Standard No Brook et al (2021)
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2 (0) (79) Minimally invasive No Buja et al (2020)
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The emerging spectrum of cardiopulmonary pathology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): report of 3 autopsies from Houston, Texas, and review of autopsy findings from other United States cities.

USA Hospitalised 3 (0)

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0 (0) 48 (48) Standard No Bussani et al (2020)
28
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Persistence of viral RNA, pneumocyte syncytia and thrombosis are hallmarks of advanced COVID-19 pathology.

Italy Hospitalised 41 (0)

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6 (0) 79·7 Standard Yes Carsana et al (2020)
29
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Pulmonary post-mortem findings in a series of COVID-19 cases from northern Italy: a two-centre descriptive study.

Italy Hospitalised 38 (1)

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1 (1), 37 ND (0) 69 Standard No Copin et al (2020)
30
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Time to consider histologic pattern of lung injury to treat critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection.

France Hospitalised 6 (0) 5 (0) ND Standard No De Michele et al (2020)
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Forty postmortem examinations in COVID-19 patients.

USA Hospitalised 40 (1)

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23 (0) (71·5) Standard No Deinhardt-Emmer et al (2020)
32
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Early postmortem mapping of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patients with COVID-19 and correlation to tissue damage.

Germany Hospitalised 11 (1)

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7 (1) 72·2 (78·0) Standard Yes Dell’Aquila et al (2020)
33
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Postmortem swabs in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: report on 12 complete clinical autopsy cases.

Italy Hospitalised 12 (0) 12 (0) 82·3 Standard No Desai et al (2020)
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USA Hospitalised 20 (0)

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13 (0) 62·5 Standard No Duarte-Neto et al (2020)
35
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Pulmonary and systemic involvement of COVID-19 assessed by ultrasound-guided minimally invasive autopsy.

Brazil Hospitalised 10 (0) 7 (0) (69) Minimally invasive No Elezkurtaj et al (2020)
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Germany Hospitalised 26 (0)

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20 (0) 69 (69) Standard Yes Elsoukkary et al (2021)
37
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Autopsy findings in 32 patients with COVID-19: a single-institution experience.

USA Hospitalised 9 (0)

Some decedents included in another cohort, so patient number reduced.

ND (0) ND Standard and minimally invasive Yes Falasca et al (2020)
38
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Post-mortem findings in Italian patients with COVID-19—a descriptive full autopsy study of cases with and without co-morbidities.

Italy Hospitalised 22 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

ND (0) 68·0 (69·5) Standard No Flikweert et al (2020)
39
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Late histopathologic characteristics of critically ill COVID-19 patients: different phenotypes without evidence of invasive aspergillosis, a case series.

Netherlands Hospitalised 7 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

7 (0) (74) Minimally invasive Yes Fox et al (2020)
40
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Pulmonary and cardiac pathology in African American patients with COVID-19: an autopsy series from New Orleans.

USA Hospitalised 10 (0)

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9 (0) 63·0 (64·5) Standard No Grosse et al (2020)
41
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  • Grosse A
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Analysis of cardiopulmonary findings in COVID-19 fatalities: high incidence of pulmonary artery thrombi and acute suppurative bronchopneumonia.

Austria Hospitalised 14 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

7 (0) 80·6 (81·5) Standard Yes Hanley et al (2020)
42
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Histopathological findings and viral tropism in UK patients with severe fatal COVID-19: a post-mortem study.

UK Hospitalised 10 (1)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

4 (1) (73) Standard, 1 minimally invasive ND Hellman et al (2020)
43
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Presence of hyaluronan in lung alveoli in severe COVID-19—an opening for new treatment options?.

Sweden Hospitalised 3 (0) ND (0) ND Standard No Kimmig et al (2020)
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IL6 inhibition in critically ill COVID-19 patients is associated with increased secondary infections.

USA Hospitalised 7 (0) ND (0) ND Standard No Kommoss et al (2020)
45
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The pathology of severe COVID-19-related lung damage.

Germany Hospitalised 13 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

9 (0) 74·6 (78) Standard Yes Konopka et al (2020)
46
  • Konopka KE
  • Nguyen T
  • Jentzen JM
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Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 infection is morphologically indistinguishable from other causes of DAD.

USA Hospitalised, community 8 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

3 (0) 55 (52) Standard No Lax et al (2020)
47
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Pulmonary arterial thrombosis in COVID-19 with fatal outcome results from a prospective, single-center, clinicopathologic case series.

Austria Hospitalised 11 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

2 (0) 80·5 Standard Yes Leppkes et al (2020)
48
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Vascular occlusion by neutrophil extracellular traps in COVID-19.

Germany Hospitalised 8 (0) ND (0) ND Standard No Li et al (2020)
49
Progression to fibrosing diffuse alveolar damage in a series of 30 minimally invasive autopsies with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China.

China Hospitalised 30 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

26 (0) 68·2 (68·5) Minimally invasive No Martines et al (2020)
50
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USA Hospitalised 8 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

6 (0) 73·5 Standard ND Menter et al (2020)
51
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Postmortem examination of COVID-19 patients reveals diffuse alveolar damage with severe capillary congestion and variegated findings in lungs and other organs suggesting vascular dysfunction.

Switzerland Hospitalised 21 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

6 (0) 76·4 (75·0) Standard, some minimally invasive No Nagashima et al (2020)
52
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Endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis in patients with COVID-19-brief report.

Brazil ND 6 (0) 6 (0) ND Minimally invasive Yes Oprinca and Muja (2020)
53
Postmortem examination of three SARS-CoV-2-positive autopsies including histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis.

Romania Hospitalised, community 3 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

0 (0) 58·7 (70·0) Standard No Prieto-Perez et al (2020)
54
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Histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis and acute alveolar damage in COVID-19 infection.

Spain Hospitalised 20 (0) 9 (0) (79) Minimally invasive No Prilutskiy et al (2020)
55
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USA Hospitalised 4 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

2 (0) 74 (72) Standard No Radermecker et al (2020)
56
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Neutrophil extracellular traps infiltrate the lung airway, interstitial, and vascular compartments in severe COVID-19.

Belgium Hospitalised 4 (0)

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4 (0) 60·8 (59·5) Standard No Rapkiewicz et al (2020)
57
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Megakaryocytes and platelet-fibrin thrombi characterize multi-organ thrombosis at autopsy in COVID-19: a case series.

USA Hospitalised 7 (1)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

5 (0) 57·4 (60·0) Standard Yes Remmelink et al (2020)
58
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Belgium Hospitalised 17 (2)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

11 (1) 67·5 (68·0) Standard Yes Roden et al (2020)
59
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The spectrum of histopathologic findings in lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19 infection.

USA Hospitalised 8 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

3 (0) (79) Standard Yes Roncati et al (2020)
60
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A proof of evidence supporting abnormal immunothrombosis in severe COVID-19: naked megakaryocyte nuclei increase in the bone marrow and lungs of critically ill patients.

Italy Hospitalised 3 (0) ND (0) 53·3 (49·0) Minimally invasive Yes Sadegh Beigee et al (2020)
61
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Diffuse alveolar damage and thrombotic microangiopathy are the main histopathological findings in lung tissue biopsy samples of COVID-19 patients.

Iran Hospitalised 25 (0) ND (0) (66) Minimally invasive Yes Sauter et al (2020)
62
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Insights into pathogenesis of fatal COVID-19 pneumonia from histopathology with immunohistochemical and viral RNA studies.

USA Hospitalised 1 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

Some decedents included in another cohort, so patient number reduced.

1 (0) ND Standard ND Schaefer et al (2020)
63
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In situ detection of SARS-CoV-2 in lungs and airways of patients with COVID-19.

USA Hospitalised 7 (1)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

7 (1) 62·4 (66·0) Standard ND Schaller et al (2020)
64
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Postmortem examination of patients with COVID-19.

Germany Hospitalised 10 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

4 (0) (79) Standard No Schurink et al (2020)
65
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Netherlands Hospitalised 18 (1) 16 (ND) ND Standard Yes Skok et al (2020)
66
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  • Lax SF
Post-mortem viral dynamics and tropism in COVID-19 patients in correlation with organ damage.

Austria Hospitalised 11 (0)

Some decedents included in another cohort, so patient number reduced.

ND (0) ND Standard Yes Tian et al (2020)
67
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  • Yong X
  • Huan L
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Pathological study of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) through postmortem core biopsies.

China Hospitalised 4 (0) ND (0) 73 (76) Minimally invasive No Valdivia-Mazeyra et al (2020)
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Spain Hospitalised 18 (0) 17 (0) 61 Standard; 7 minimally invasive No Wichmann et al (2020)
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  • Luegehetmann M
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Germany Hospitalised 12 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

5 (0) (73) Standard No Wu et al (2020)
70
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Italy Hospitalised 10 (0) 10 (0) ND Standard No Youd et al (2020)
71
COVID-19 autopsy in people who died in community settings: the first series.

UK Community 3 (0)

Sufficient information for individual-level data extraction.

0 (0) 82·3 (86·0) Standard ND Total NA NA 677 (11) 320 (6) NA NA NA


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